Secondary education in early nineteenth-century England was mainly the preserve of upper and middle-class males.

Boys' schooling had definite aims because they were destined for careers.

The main emphasis was on the Classics (Greek and Latin) in the many grammar and public schools for boys such as Harrow, Rugby, Shrewsbury and Eton.

There were no equivalent public girls' schools because girls of all classes were expected only to marry and rear children.

There were many privately-run boarding and day schools of varying standards for boys and girls.

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